A biofilm is any group of microorganisms, including bacteria, algae, fungi, etc. where cells stick to each other on a surface. The organisms stick to each other because they produce a "glue" which holds them together, producing colonies of microorganisms in a thin fluid layer. Biofilms can form on many different surfaces where there is low flow within a system allowing the microorganisms to a surface without being washed off by the flowing fluid.
Most biocides will only kill the surface of the biofilm that is exposed to the biocide because the biocide cannot penetrate the biofilm. Chlorine dioxide is different as it is a dissolved gas in water. This allows chlorine dioxide to readily penetrate the biofilm and oxidize the "glue" that holds the biofilm together. This means that chlorine dioxide is able to break apart the biofilm to the point that the microorganisms are no longer protected and can be killed by chlorine dioxide and washed away by the flowing fluid.
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